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Badminton PDF Print E-mail
Written by Administrator   
Tuesday, 02 January 2007 01:08

Badminton

Player attempts backhand stroke
Badminton players try to hit a shuttlecock onto the ground of their opponents' half of a court

Badminton, played with a racquet and a shuttlecock - a device made of rubber with a crown of feathers - is officially the fastest racquet sport in the world. Shuttlecock speeds have reached 332km/h so competitors need razor sharp reflexes to successfully hit it back and forth over a net.

The game is also a major test of fitness and stamina. Despite some similarities with tennis, which is played on a larger court, badminton players cover a greater distance during a match. They can cover anywhere up to 6km per match due to frequent long rallies.

At the top level, players use a combination of power and skill to win points. The overhead smash may be the crowd pleaser, but this shot can only be set up by more subtle strokes.

The dropshot or netshot is often used, while expert players learn to disguise their strokes to confuse their opponents.

Competition badminton is almost always played in an indoor environment to prevent the wind from affecting the flight of the shuttlecock. Badminton is also enjoyed outdoors, however, played in parks and back gardens all over the world.

 
Athletics PDF Print E-mail
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Tuesday, 02 January 2007 01:03

Athletics - History

 Early pole vault event
The word athletics comes from the Greek "athlos" meaning "contest"

The word athletics comes from the Greek "athlos" meaning "contest". A track running race, known as the "stade", was the first and only event at the first ancient Olympics in 776BC.

Later, more running distances were added, along with the long jump and a pentathlon event which introduced the discus and javelin.

The end of the ancient Olympics in AD393 also saw the end of organised athletics for more than 1,400 years. Running, jumping and throwing competitions continued, however, on an informal basis in most civilised cultures, often as a part of military training.

Interest in the Olympics was revived when archaeologists excavated ancient Olympia towards the end of the 19th century. Baron Pierre de Coubertain founded the International Olympic Committee in Paris in 1894, and the first modern Olympics followed in Athens two years later.

Track and field athletics was a major part of Athens 1896, although women did not compete until the 1928 Amsterdam Games, and then only in five events. The men's programme has varied, but has become relatively standardised at all major games since 1928. Women's events, however, have gradually increased in number to almost match the men's.

The recent addition of women's pole vault, triple jump and 3,000m steeplechase means the only exclusively male event is now the 50km race walk, although the women run over a shorter distance in the sprint hurdles, over lower hurdles in both events, and take part in a seven-event heptathlon rather than a 10-event decathlon.

The International Amateur Athletics Federation was formed in 1912 as a world governing body. IAAF has staged its own World Championships since 1983, allowing prize money from 1982. In 2001, it changed its name to the International Association of Athletics Federations.

Athletics has been a part of every Asian Games, starting at New Delhi, India, in 1951.

 
Athletics PDF Print E-mail
Written by Administrator   
Tuesday, 02 January 2007 01:02

Athletics - Rules

Triple jumper leaps through the air
Athletes take a hop, skip and a jump in the triple jump

Track events (classified by distance in metres):

100m, 200m and 400m: Sprint races where the athletes run as fast as they can in their own lane for the entire distance.

800m and 1500m: Middle distance events where athletes can't maintain top speed, so tactics come into play. Athletes are also permitted to run out of lane.

5000m and 10,000m: Long distance events run out of lane, where endurance is vital, in addition to tactics.

110m hurdles (100m for women) and 400m hurdles: Sprint races where the athletes also have to jump over 10 barriers equally spaced down the track. The men have higher hurdles and a slightly longer distance to cover in the shorter event.

3000m steeplechase: An endurance race over hurdles. After an obstacle-free first lap, the competitors tackle five hurdles, including a water-jump, on each successive lap. This is a men's event only at Doha 2006.

4x100m and 4x400m relays: Team sprint races where four athletes race in sequence, passing a baton to the next runner. Dropping the baton results in disqualification. The first team whose final athlete crosses the line with the baton is the winner.

Field events

High jump:

Competitors aim to jump the highest over a bar. They have three chances to clear the bar. If they clear it, then the bar is raised gradually until only the winner remains.

Pole vault:

Similar to the high jump, but competitors are allowed to use a long pole to help propel them over the bar and can therefore clear great heights.

Long jump:

Competitors aim to jump the furthest. They have three chances to run and jump from behind a line into a sandpit.

Triple jump:

Similar to the long jump, but competitors have to take a hop, a skip and a jump at the end of their run up.

Javelin:

Competitors throw a long spear, known as the javelin, as far as possible from behind a line. The javelin must stick into the ground on landing to count.

Shot put:

Competitors throw a heavy metal sphere, known as a shot, as far as possible, using a strictly controlled pushing motion from the shoulder.

Discus:

Competitors throw a disc as far as possible using a straight arm and a swinging action.

Hammer:

Competitors throw a metal sphere on a chain, known as a hammer, as far as possible using a swinging action.

Road events

Marathon:

A long endurance road race, run over the traditional marathon distance of about 42 kilometres (26.2 miles).

20km race walk:

An endurance road race conducted under strict walking rules; competitors must keep one foot on the ground at all times to prevent running

Combined events

Decathlon:

A men's event featuring 10 disciplines. On day one, competitors start with the 100m, followed by the long jump, shot put, high jump and 400m. Day two features the 100m hurdles, discus, pole vault, javelin and the final event, the 1500m. Scoring tables are used to give a final points total.

Heptathlon:

A women's event featuring seven disciplines. On day one, competitors start with the 100m hurdles, followed by the high jump, shot put and 200m. Day two features the long jump, javelin and 800m. Scoring tables are used to give a final points total.

 
Athletics PDF Print E-mail
Written by Administrator   
Tuesday, 02 January 2007 01:01

Athletics

Middle-distance race in progress
Athletics is split into two main disciplines: track and field events

Athletic events represent sport at its purest and are often the centrepiece of major international sporting games. They are the embodiment of the Olympic motto, Citius, Altuis, Fortius - or Faster, Higher, Stronger - with athletes pushing themselves to the limit against their opponents and the record books.

Athletic events can be split into four main categories: track events, field events, road events and combined events.

Track events are running races that take place on a 400m outdoor track in the main stadium. The sprint races provide instant excitement, but look out for clever tactics and fast finishing in the longer races.

Field events are throwing and jumping competitions that usually take place inside the track. Strength, speed and agility are key, while tactics also come in to play in the jumping events.

Road events are long running and walking races that take place on public roads, although they often finish on the track inside the stadium. The men's and women's marathon races will take place along Doha's city streets and Corniche.

Combined events feature a selection of track and field events that take place over two days and are designed to find the best all-round athlete. As such, the decathlon and heptathlon are two of the most respected gold medals.

Track and field athletes are often the main stars of any major Games, and the 15th Asian Games.

 
Artistic Gymnastics PDF Print E-mail
Written by Administrator   
Tuesday, 02 January 2007 00:58

Artistic Gymnastics - History

Female athlete on beam
Artistic gymnastics developed in the early 1800s from the techniques used by the military

The roots of modern day gymnastics can by found as far back as 4,000 years ago when acrobats performed in ancient Egypt. Paintings and carvings show evidence of people building human pyramids and practising balancing acts.

Men and women of ancient Greece enjoyed bull-leaping, and gymnastics were part of the ancient Olympic Games.

The term "artistic gymnastics" emerged in the early 1800s to distinguish free-flowing styles from the techniques used by the military. Although viewed as a novelty by many, gymnastic competitions began to flourish across Europe in the 19th century.

In 1881, the International Federation of Gymnastics (FIG) was founded in Liege, Belgium, making it the oldest international sports federation. When the Olympic movement was resurrected at Athens in 1896, gymnastics made a fitting return.

The Olympic programme really took off in 1924, with men competing for individual medals and in team events on each apparatus. Four years later, women began competing in Olympic gymnastics at Amsterdam.

By 1952, the Soviet Union had become the leading force in Olympic gymnastics and since then the US and China, along with eastern European countries have all made their mark on the world stage.

Artistic gymnastics was first introduced to the Asian Games programme at the 7th Asian Games in Tehran, IR Iran in 1974.

 
Artistic Gymnastics PDF Print E-mail
Written by Administrator   
Tuesday, 02 January 2007 00:56

Artistic Gymnastics - Rules

Male athlete doing floor exercise
Judges rank gymnastic performances by points

Gymnastics competitions at the 15th Asian Games Doha 2006 will be organised in accordance with the International Federation of Gymnastics (FIG) rules and regulations. All competitors must be at least 16 years old.

Women compete on four apparatus: the vault, uneven bars, balance beam and floor. Men compete on six apparatus: the floor, pommel horse, rings, vault, parallel bars and horizontal bar.

From 2006 onwards the scoring system will be a Code of Points, replacing the Start Value system with open-ended scoring.

Two different panels will judge every routine, evaluating different aspects of the performance. The highest and lowest marks are disregarded before an average is awarded to the competitor.

There are three competitions for men and women; team, individual apparatus and all-around finals. Teams may consist of four to six gymnasts and their four highest scores from each apparatus are taken into account for the team total.

Only gymnasts who perform on all the apparatus are eligible to qualify for the all-around finals; 24 gymnasts from the first phase can take part in the individual events, with a maximum of two competitors per country or region.

To qualify for the vault finals, two vaults are necessary. These are then averaged for a qualifying score but for the all-around and team ranking only the first vault score counts.

Last Updated on Tuesday, 02 January 2007 00:57
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